Indonesia's Approach to Urban Sanitation - Lessons for India

By Shubhagato Dasgupta and Prakhar Jain
24 March 2014

The WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) data for 2011 shows that Indonesia comes second after India in number of people without access to toilets. In urban areas 13.9% of the population in India practice open defecation, while the number is 13.1% for Indonesia. This policy note explores how despite being at comparable levels on urban sanitation, the policy approaches of the two countries are different and what India can learn from the approach adopted by Indonesia.