Journal Articles

Ideas, Policies and Practices: Tracing the Evolution of Elementary Education Reform in India since 1975s

Priyadarshini Singh


March 14, 2023

This study examines four key reform policies and programs of the Indian education system: DPEP (1994), SSA (2000), RTE (2010) and NEP (2020). Each of these has a rich and nuanced body of research to which our study contributes a unique tracing of the key ideas, debates, and stakeholders. This longue durée of reform will shed light on the histories of current reform options and if they will indeed meet the call of the times to address the learning crisis. We use the political settlements approach to understand the contestation of ideas and actors which finally determine the policy design and the implementation strategies. We unpack the iterative dynamics between ideas and actors to highlight why our reform design looks the way it does and what kind of spaces exist for transformative change particularly to ensure learning.

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