Making Sense on its Own Terms: India in the HFC and Aviation Negotiations
Climate negotiations do not occur only under the auspices of the UNFCCC. Increasingly, the climate arena resembles a ‘regime complex’, with sub-negotiations in different fora and under different rules. This chapter provides insights into two such important negotiations: limits on hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, and a Global Market-Based Measures approach on aviation emissions. The chapter’s central focus is on the in-country analysis and consultations in recent years, which allowed for a more proactive – rather than merely defensive – approach to the HFC (and, partly, aviation) negotiations. Notable was India’s departure from its usual negotiation style during such processes, particularly in the former, including on key issues such as differentiation. The deals could not have been possible if India had not made sense of the science, the technological alternatives, the interests of varied groups, and the economic impact of alternative options on its own terms.
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