Faecal Sludge and Septage Management in Uttarakhand: A Review of the Law and Policy Framework
In this report, the researchers have examined the Faecal Sludge and Septage Management Framework in the State of Uttarakhand. The report aims at mapping the potential and limitations of the extant legal and policy framework governing FSSM in Uttarakhand and at the Central Level, and to analyze the challenges in the actual implementation of FSSM in Uttarakhand. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage involved a mapping of legal, institutional and policy framework in FSSM in Uttarakhand at large, and of the selected cities/towns of Doiwala, Pithoragarh and Rudrapur in particular. The second stage involved field visits to the selected towns to examine the implementation of the extant regulations. The fieldwork was done through in-depth semi-structured and unstructured interviews with various stakeholders including different agencies and residents in the particular urban area. The researchers found that in relation to septage collection, multiple stakeholders and payments and regulatory structures exist in Uttarakhand which provides its own unique challenges. Another of the researchers’ findings relate to the limited suitability of STPs in Uttarakhand, the importance of strong environmental controls, and the plight of sanitation workers in the State. The researchers’ solutions to resolve these issues relate to the utilization of existing sanitation programmes such as SBM-U and reforms in regulations at local, state and central levels.