Improving Urban Sanitation in India: Lessons from Malaysia
Malaysia is one of the countries in the world to have emerged as leaders in septage management for sanitation improvement. However, this journey witnessed various changes and amendments in the Constitution, policies, Acts and operational mechanisms. India undoubtedly faces the challenge to address issues of sanitation in the country. Through various policy frameworks and government programmes such as SBM (U) and AMRUT, sanitation has received tremendous attention recently. This paper attempts to present Malaysia case of sanitation focusing on governance, evolution of sanitation in the country, various legal frameworks and mechanisms that evolved over a period of time, which India can learn from as it embarks on an arduous path to improve urban sanitation in the country.