India has strengthened its ties with Afghanistan since 2001. A crucial facet of the Indo-Afghan bilateral relationship has been India’s extensive initiatives directed towards the restructuring and rehabilitation of war-torn Afghanistan. Indian development support continues to play a pivotal role in Afghanistan’s overall socio-economic development through infrastructural, institutional, as well as human resource capacity building. This brief sheds light on India’s development assistance program to Afghanistan, which is the 5th largest bilateral aid program to Afghanistan and the largest program from any country in the region. The report includes a case study of the recently inaugurated ‘Afghan-India Friendship Dam’, as well as lessons from this case study on the delivery of Indian development cooperation projects.