India faces serious challenges in constructing development paths that are socially inclusive, ecologically sustainable and politically feasible. Current resource intensive growth strategies have caused serious environmental degradation and endangered the livelihoods of many vulnerable groups, particularly the scheduled tribes and other traditional communities. These vulnerable groups rely solely on land and the environment for sustenance. However, underneath these lands lie much sought after natural resources. This research project explores the impact of the current development model and practices, involving intensive agriculture, industrialisation and mining on the rights of vulnerable groups and the environment.