Working Papers

What Do Bihar’s Voters Want?

From this week, voters will queue up for the final three phases of the five-phase election in Bihar, choosing either the Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) or the Janata Dal (United)-Rashtriya Janata Dal-Congress “Grand Alliance” (mahagathbandhan). Over the past few wee...

Elaborating in the INDC context

Several countries have embarked on nationwide processes to devise their ‘contributions’ towards a new global climate agreement set to be adopted at Paris in 2015. Sixty-two countries have already communicated their contributions to the UNFCCC, in pledges covering around 62.9% of global emissions ...


neha b joseph

Taxes: Price of Civilization or Tribute to Leviathan?

There are two dominant narratives about taxation. One is taxes are the “price we pay for a civilized society” (Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.). In this view taxes are not a necessary evil (as in the pairing of “death and taxes” as inevitable) but a positive good: more taxes buy more “civilization.” ...

Exclusion, Informality, and Predation in the Cities of Delhi

Delhi is India’s richest city and as the capital of the nation has long enjoyed favourable treatment from the Centre. As the home to the country’s national bureaucracies, it also benefits from a large base of secure, well-paid, government jobs. Over the last decade the city has grown at an averag...


cities of delhi team

Use of standardised patients to assess quality of tuberculosis care...

Existing studies of the quality of tuberculosis care have relied on recall-based patient surveys, questionnaire surveys of knowledge, and prescription or medical record analysis, and the results mostly show the health-care provider's knowledge rather than actual practice. No study has used standa...

Jishnu Das
ada kwan, benjamin daniels, srinath satyanaraya...

Transforming Electricity Governance in India: Has India’s Pow...

Consumers’ participation in regulatory decision-making in infrastructure sectors can be critical to ensure effective regulatory governance. Providing avenues for enabling consumers’ voice in the regulatory process expands the information base available to regulators in their decision-making, and ...

Ashwini K Swain
ashish khanna, daljit singh, mudit narain

The Institutionalisation of Climate Policy in India: Designing a De...

While there is growing attention to climate policy, effective coordination, design and implementation of policy require attention to institutional design for climate governance. This paper examines the case of India, organized around three periods: pre-2007; 2007–2009 and 2010-mid-2014, providing...

Navroz K Dubash
neha b joseph

The Inscription of Law in Life

With innovation in the genetic engineering now being rewarded in the form of intellectual property rights, there are new things that are beginning to count as property and as objects of human invention – plant varieties, seeds, germplasm, genetic sequences, DNA and so on. To bring the realm of “b...

The Inscription of Technology in Life

With innovation in the genetic engineering now being rewarded in the form of intellectual property rights, there are new things that are beginning to count as property and as objects of human invention – plant varieties, seeds, germplasm, genetic sequences, DNA and so on. To bring the realm of “b...

Quality and Accountability in Healthcare Delivery: Audit Evidence f...

We present among the first direct evidence on the quality of healthcare in low-income settings using a unique and original set of audit studies, where standardized patients were presented to a nearly-representative sample of rural public and private primary care providers in the Indian state of M...

Value Subtraction in Public Sector Production: Accounting Versus Ec...

We combine newly created data on per student government expenditure on children in government elementary schools across India, data on per student expenditure by households on students attending private elementary schools, and the ASER measure of learning achievement of students in rural areas. T...

Yamini Aiyar
lant pritchett

The Other JNNURM: What Does it Mean for Small Towns in India?

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) was launched to address the growing challenges of urbanization by improving infrastructure, governance and the quality of life in cities. This paper assesses all the four sub-missions under JNNURM i.e UIG and BSUP for big cities and UIDSSMT...

Farm to Non-Farm: Are India’s Villages “Rurbanising”?

The process of urbanization in terms of workforce patterns is largely considered to be unidirectional – increasing engagement of the workforce in non-agricultural occupational pursuits. Using a unique database matching Census data on rural settlements for 2001 and 2011, this paper shows that this...


pranav sidhwani

How Much Does India Spend Per Student on Elementary Education?

Recent years have seen significant changes in the landscape of elementary education (EE) in India. Yet, updated estimates on public and private expenditure on EE are not available. This paper fills the gap by providing a methodology and estimates of per student public expenditure on children enro...

Avani Kapur
ambrish dongre vibhu tewary

Rights, Accountability and Citizenship: Examining India’s Eme...

Public sector service delivery in India is notorious for its low coverage, poor quality and high corruption. This is in striking contrast to the political commitment to inclusive development, and the aspirations of the Indian Constitution. The last decade has seen extensive efforts to change the ...

Unravelling Rural India’s enduring water indigence: framing the que...

The paper extensively reviews India’s centrally sponsored programme for improving drinking water supply coverage in rural settlements. The first section of this paper seeks to describe the current status and general understanding of the problems related to rural drinking water delivery in India. ...

India’s Democracy and its Critics

In the opening pages of “The Indian Ideology” Perry Anderson criticises leading Indian scholars for uncritical and inflated claims of India being a successful, indeed exceptional, democracy. Our subaltern historians and political analysts on the extreme left are equally dismissive. Many of the ...


ajit mozoomdar

The Case of Kathputli Colony: Mapping Delhi’s First In-situ S...

The Delhi Master Plan 2021 introduced the "In-situ rehabilitation" approach to slum redevelopment, in which residents of Jhuggi Jhopdi Clusters transition to temporary housing while the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) reconstructs the settlment, and then shifts the slum-dwellers back onto the o...